A magnificent heritage in Minsk
Experts say that in Belarus there are over 150 historical architectural ensembles. But in Minsk only one has survived. It is the Loshitskij complex estate, one of the most sentimental places in the capital.
It is authentically known, that in 16th century on the place of the two rivers` confluence - Svisloch and Losh - there was a feudal estate. Its owners were princes Zaslavskie, descendants of Gedemin, the founder of the belarusian-Lithuanian Power. The good place drew attention of many noblemen; therefore the estate changed its owners several times. They were all well-known belarusian families: Princes Drutskie, direct descendants of the well-known Polotsk Prince Vseslav, whose nickname was the Magician because of his unbelievable feats; and later the Prushinskie family - natives of the western Belarus, present Poland. The Royal general - aide-de-camp, the gentleman of many Polish awards, Stanislav Prushinsky transformed the old estate into a huge residence. At that time many honoured guests, including the last king of Rech Pospolita Stanislav-Avgust Poniatovsky and the Russian emperor Paul I visited the estate. Later in the Loshitskij Park, the playwright Vincent Dunin-Martsinkevich, the composer Stanislav Monjushko and other known people of that time walked. But the greatest fame to Loshitsa brought Evstafij Liubansky, the representative of the female line of Prushinskie, who settled here in 1884. The new owner had an extensive range of interests and was perfectly educated. Except wide state and economic activities, he is known of some eccentricity. In particular, he was the heated propagandist of a bicycle and the head of the Company of Minsk bicyclists. And also, they say, he was privy to an attempt on the life of Minsk governor Kurlov. Liubansky constructed in Loshitsa some profitable enterprises: two mills, starch-treacly shop, a distillery, a small brick plant (due to which, by the way, he enclosed a great territory with a brick wall, rests of which exist nowadays. Sir Evstafij nevertheless gave the basic energy on the arrangement of the park and the estate. In the park he planted many exotic plants, and now it is possible to see there a Manchurian nut, a Mountain and Crimean pine, a Siberian fir, a magnolia. Especially for his wife he brought a magnolia Cobus from Japan, they say, it blossoms in her birthday. With the name IAdviga, the wife of Evstafij, the nicest and the saddest stories of Loshitsa are connected.
Sir Evstafij undertook the grandiose reorganization of the estate only for his beloved wife, who was younger for 17 years. A One-storied construction on the river side turned to a graceful residence. To the wooden house of XVII century the new stone case was added. The house turned out to be not only convenient, but also beautiful - wooden carved details added to it special aesthetics. The internal furnish corresponded to the concepts of luxury: walls were reveted with oak panels, furnaces and fireplaces were faced with tiles, which are unique today. For the hall, Liubanskie chose the English style, for the corridor and ladder – Pompeian paintings. Making up the library and the dining room, they used elements of the Renaissance; drawing rooms were decorated in a smart rococo. Tiled furnaces played not the last role in the furniture of the apartments. There is a collection of them in the house. The central place in the collection occupies a fireplace made in Riga on German models. After the reorganization, the Loshitskaja estate was mentioned in European, in particular, in Polish albums, as one of the most picturesque.
A family idyll collapsed in fatal 1905. Iadviga Liubanskaia had misfortune to fall in love with the Minsk governor A. N. Musin-Pushkin. She was a Polish noblewoman, brought up in Catholic traditions, and the invincible attraction to the Russian aristocrat was disastrous for her. Torn apart by contradictions between passion and honour, IAdviga committed suicide, having drowned in Losh. In memory of her Evstafij planted a Manchurian apricot, unique in Belarus. Then he blocked a window in her bedroom with brick and left to the Caucasus, the place where all Russian noblemen went searching for death – there he died.
During the Soviet time Loshitskij Park was forgotten. Due to this fact, many treasures of the park kept untouched. But not all of them. A Catholic chapel, serving as tomb of the last owners, didn’t survive as well. It was started to destroy in the 20s, and in 1944 German armies completed the destruction, having blown it up together with the warehouse of ammunition, which they had no time to take out.
Within occupation, from 1941 till 1944, in the Loshitskij estate there was the residence of the Minsk regional commissar V.Freitag. Here was the general commissar of Belarus V.Kube and his successor ?. von Gotberg. He liked to visit Loshitsa and often carried out meetings here. The partisan command decided to use one of such meetings for a punitive action, to destroy the whole top of German occupational authorities. However a mine put in one of the furnaces, was found out, and three maids (Chizhevskie - mother and daughter and N. Moiseeva), who had to carry out the diversion, were seized and executed.
The Loshitskaja estate has gone through many historical tests. Today the reconstructed complex still impresses by lyricism and harmony.